Recent Group News
[01/05/2021] Our paper "Multimaterial Printing for Cephalopod-Inspired Light-Responsive Artificial Chromatophores" is published in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces!
[12/02/2020] Professor Lee's Op-ed on 4D printing is featured in
[10/30/2020] Our paper "4D Printing Reconfigurable, Deployable, and Mechanically Tunable Metamaterials" has been selected as Materials Horizons Outstanding Paper 2019!
[10/30/2020] One of the images from our paper "4D‐Printed Transformable Tube Array for High‐Throughput 3D Cell Culture and Histology" has been selected for "This Month in Pictures" from Advanced Science News!
[09/02/2020] Our group has been awarded a grant from the 2020 Busch Biomedical Grant Program!
[08/31/2020] Our paper "4D-Printed Transformable Tube Array for High-Throughput Cell Culture and Histology" is published in Advanced Materials!
Highly motivated students with research interests in 3D printing, soft materials, mechanics, or biomedical microdevices are encouraged to contact Prof. Lee.


Our primary research interest lies in the development of rapid, flexible, and scalable additive micro/nano manufacturing technologies to overcome critical technological barriers of the current manufacturing and to explore new engineering applications by studying fundamental physics and mechanics of soft active materials. 


Current members
Howon Lee [CV]
Principal investigator
Assistant Professor

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

howon.lee (at)

Paul Wang
Undergraduate Student

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

pw268 (at)

2019-20 Aresty Research Assistant

Yueping Wang [CV]
Graduate Student

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering (at)

Om Prabhu
Undergraduate Student

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

op94 (at)

2020 NASA NJSGC Summer Fellow

Chen Yang [CV]
Graduate Student

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

Chen.yang (at)

Michael Tsai
Undergraduate Student

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

mt915 (at)

2020 NASA NJSGC Summer Fellow

Michael Philip
Undergraduate Student

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

mpg116 (at)

2020 NASA NJSGC Summer Intern



Journal Publications
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Recent Advances in Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing: Methods and Applications
Daehoon Han and Howon Lee*
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 28, 158-166 (2020) - Invited Review
Self-Limiting Electrospray Deposition for the Surface Modification of Additively Manufactured Parts
Dylan Kovacevich†, Lin Lei† († equal contribution), Daehoon Han, Christianna Kuznetsova, Steven E. Kooi, Howon Lee, and Jonathan P. Singer*
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 12(18), 20901 (2020)
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Immobilization of Laccasse on a Graphene Interface: Direct Electron Transfer and Molecular Dynamics Study
Taeyoung Yoon, Inchul Baek, Seonwoo Lee, Hyunsung Choi, Seongho Yoon, Howon Lee, Sunwoong Kim, and Sungso Na
Applied Surface Science 521, 146378 (2020) 
4D Printing of a Bioinspired Microneedle Array with Backward-Facing Barbs for Enhanced Tissue Adhesion
Daehoon Han†, Riddish S. Morde†, Stefano Mariani† († equal contribution), Antonino A. La Mattina, Emanuele Vignali, Chen Yang, Giuseppe Barillaro*, and Howon Lee*
Advanced Functional Materials 3, 1909197 (2020)
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Rapid Multi-Material 3D Printing with Projection Micro-Stereolithography Using Dynamic Fluidic Control
Daehoon Han, Chen Yang, Nicholas X. Fang, and Howon Lee*
Additive Manufacturing 27, 606 (2019)
4D Printing Reconfigurable, Deployable and Mechanically Tunable Metamaterials
Chen Yang, Manish Boorugu, Andrew Dopp, Jie Ren, Raymond Martin, Daehoon Han,
Wonjoon Choi, and Howon Lee*
Materials Horizons 6, 1244 (2019) - A Selection of 2019 Articles
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Spatial Uncertainty Modeling for Surface Roughness of Additively Manufactured Microstructures via Image Segmentation
Namjung Kim*, Chen Yang, Howon Lee*, and Narayana R. Aluru
Applied Sciences 9, 1093 (2019)
Modeling of fiber-reinforced polymeric gels
NikolaBosnjak, ShuolunWang, DaehoonHan, HowonLee, and Shawn A.Chester*
Mechanics Research Communications 96, 7 (2019)
Temperature-Responsive Thermal Metamaterials Enabled by Modular Design of Thermally Tunable Unit Cells
Sunggu Kang, Jonghwan Cha, Kyeongbeom Seo, Sejun Kim, Youngsun Cha, HowonLee, Jingsung Park and Wonjoon Choi*
International Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer 130, 469 (2019)
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Improving Surface Roughness of Additively Manufactured Parts Using a Photopolymerization Model and Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization
Namjung Kim†, Ishan Bhalerao† († equal contribution), Daehoon Han, Chen Yang, and Howon Lee* 
Applied Sciences 9, 151 (2019)
Soft Robotic Manipulation and Locomotion with a 3D Printed Electroactive Hydrogel
Daehoon Han, Cindy Farino, Chen Yang, Tracy Scott, Daniel Browe, Wonjoon Choi,
Joseph W. Freeman, and Howon Lee*
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, 17512 (2018)
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Micro 3D Printing of a Temperature-Responsive Hydrogel Using Projection Micro-Stereolithography
Daehoon Han, Zhaocheng Lu, Shawn A. Chester, and Howon Lee*
Scientific Reports 8, 1963 (2018)
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Rapid Pulsed Light Sintering of Silver Nanowires on Woven Polyester for Personal Thermal Management with Enhanced Performance, Durability, and Cost-Effectiveness
Hyun-jun Hwang, Harish Devaraj, Chen Yang, Jongwei Gao, Chih-hung Chang, Howon Lee, and Rajiv Malhotra*
Scientific Reports 8, 17159 (2018)
Layer-by-Layer Assembled Carbon Nanotube Polyethyleneimine Coating Inside Copper-Sintered Heat Pipes for Enhanced Thermal Performance
Seunghyeon Lee, Jaemin Lee, Hayoung Hwang, Taehan Yeo, Howon Lee, and Wonjoon Choi*
Carbon 140, 521 (2018)
Tunable Multifunctional Thermal Metamaterials: Manipulation of Local Heat Flux via Assembly of Unit-Cell Thermal Shifters
Gwanwoo Park, Sunggu Kang, Howon Lee, and Wonjoon Choi*
Scientific Reports 7, 41000 (2017)
Highly Sensitive, Direct Real-Time Detection of Silver Nanowires by Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Kuewhan Jang, Chanho Park, Juneseok You, Jaeyeong Choi, Hyunjun Park, Jinsung Park, Howon Lee, Chang-Hwan Choi, and Sungsoo Na*
Nanotechnology 27, 475506 (2016)
Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers
Q. Ge*, A. H. Sakhaei, Howon Lee, C. K. Dunn, N. X. Fang*, and M. L. Dunn*
Scientific Reports 6, 31110 (2016)
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Ultra-sensitive detection of zinc oxide nanowires using a quartz crystal microbalance and phosphoric acid DNA
K. Jang, J. You, C. Park, H. Park, J. Choi, C.-H. Choi, J. Park, Howon Lee, S. Na
Nanotechnology 27, 365501 (2016)
Polytope Sector-based Synthesis and Analysis of Microstructural Architectures with Tunable Thermal Conductivity and Expansion
J. B. Hopkins*, Y. Song, Howon Lee, N. X. Fang, and C. M. Spadaccini
Journal of Mechanical Design 138, 051401 (2016)
High Sensitive, Direct, and Label-Free Technique for Hg2+ Detection by Using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
C. Park, K. Jang, S. Lee, J. You, S. Lee, H. Ha, K. Yun, J. Kim, Howon Lee, J. Park, S. Na*
Nanotechnology 26, 305501 (2015)
Ultralight and Ultra-Stiff Mechanical Metamaterials
X. Zheng*, Howon Lee, T. Weisgraber, M. Shusteff, J. Deotte, E. Duoss, J. Kuntz, M. Biener, 
Q. Ge, J. Jackson, S. O. Kucheyev, N. X. Fang*, and C. Spadaccini*
Science 344, 1373 (2014)
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Prescribed Pattern Transformation in Swelling Gel Tubes by Elastic Instability 
Howon Lee, Jiaping Zhang, Hanqing Jiang, and Nicholas X. Fang*
Physical Review Letters 108 (2012) 214304
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Design and Optimization of an LED Projection Micro-Stereolithography Three-Dimensional Manufacturing System
X.R. Zheng, J. Deotte, M. Allonso, G. Farquar, T. Weisgraber, S. Gemberling, Howon Lee, N. Fang, and C.M. Spadaccini*
Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 125001 (2012)
Micro 3D Printing Using a Digital Projector and its Application in the Study of Soft Materials Mechanics 
Howon Lee and Nicholas X. Fang*
Journal of Visualized Experiments (69) e4457, doi:10.3791/4457 (2012)
First Jump of Microgel; Actuation Speed Enhancement by Elastic Instability 
Howon Lee, Chunguang Xia, and Nicholas X. Fang*
Soft Matter 6, 4342 (2010)
Solvent-Driven Polymeric Micro Beam Device
Chunguang Xia, Howon Lee, and Nicholas X. Fang*
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 20, 085030(2010)


Rapid Multi-Material 3D Printing with PuSL Using Dynamic Fluidic Control
Rapid multi-material projection micro-stereolithography using dynamic fluidic control
of multiple liquid photopolymers within an integrated fluidic cell. Highly complex multi-material 3D microstructures
are rapidly fabricated through an active material exchange process.
Daehoon Han, et al. Additive Manufacturing (2019) [Link]
4D Printing Reconfigurable,
Deployable and Mechanically Tunable Metamaterials
Geometrically reconfigurable, functionally deployable, and mechanically tunable lightweight metamaterials created through 4D printing. Using digital micro 3D printing with a shape memory polymer, dramatic and reversible changes in stiffness, geometry, and functions of metamaterials are achieved.
Chen Yang, et al. Materials Horizons (2019) [Link]
Soft Robotic Manipulation and Locomotion with a 3D Printed Electroactive Hydrogel
3D printed electroactive hydrogel (EAH) actuated in response to electric field grips and moves an object, and walks underwater
Daehoon Han, et al. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 17512 (2018) [Link]
Micro 3D printed temperature responsive hydrogel 
Temperature responsive hydrogel is polymeric networks that exhibit large volume change in response to temperature. In this video, a 3D-printed chess king shows shrinking and growing as water temperatures change. The height and smallest lateral feature size of the structure are about 7.8 mm, and 163 μm, respectively
Daehoon Han, et al. Scientific Reports 8 1963 (2018) [Link]
MIT News 
(featured on MIT homepage cover on 5/3/2012)
Making Wrinkles - Hydrogels That May Collapse into Complex Shapes May Aid in Drug Delivery

"New technique predictably generates complex, wavy shapes
May help improve drug delivery and explain natural patterns from brain folds to bell peppers"

For the full news article, click here.

Pattern Transformation by Buckling Instability
A gel tube which transforms into buckled configuration with 5 lobes along the circumference during swelling experiment. Buckling mode depends only on a non-dimensional geometrical parameter, h/D, or height to diameter ratio. Diameter of the sample is about 4.5mm.

Howon Lee, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 214304 [Link]

Jumping Micro-Device
This movie shows a real time jumping motion of micro hydrogel device upon wetting. Rapid actuation obtained by snap-buckling allows the device to jump by itself off the ground. It jumps as 7 times far and 3 times high as its own body size. The power density generated by this actuation is about 35 mW/g, which is comparable to that of human muscle (~100 mW/g). The micro-flea is 1 mm wide and 700 um tall.

Howon Lee, et al. Soft Matter 6 (2010) 4342-4345 [Link]

Soft Robotic Gripper
3D polymeric micro-devices is actuated simply by applying a single droplet of solvent. Swelling of polymer is locally controlled by direct solvent delivery through embedded microfluidic vascular network. Swelling occurs only in the immediate vicinity of the channels, therefore motion is programmed by appropriate design of the vascular network.


Manuscript in preparation

Non-Fickian Diffusion of Water in Glassy Polymer
Solvent migration in glassy polymer exhibits interesting non-Fickian Case II diffusion kinetics where very distinct and sharp diffusion front occurs and propagates with a constant speed. The rod is about 500 um in diameter.


Manuscript in preparation

Negative Thermal Expansion Material
Unprecedented physical properties of material can be created by integrating multiple materials heterogeneously with micro-architecture. For example, material expansion from each constituent material can be effectively guided through design, resulting in structural shrinkage. By optimizing design parameters, material system with zero or even negative thermal expansion can be developed.



Micro-Patterned Shape Memory Polymer
Shape memory polymers (SMP) are polymeric smart materials that have the ability to return from plastically deformed temporary shape to its original shape upon external trigger such as temperature change. In this video, crumpled SMP beam reveals its original shape at the elevated temperature. 3D micro-patterned SMPs holds great potential for biomedical devices such as drug-loaded vascular stent.


Optofluidic Synthesis of Anisotropic Microparticles
Microparticles are fabricated in the microfluidic channel. Desired UV pattern is digitally generated by dynamic virtual mask and projected on the microfluidic channel where the flow of photosensitive resin is controlled. Flow is stopped for polymerization via UV illumination, followed by flushing of the particles away from the fabrication site for next synthesis. This platform offers flexible and high throughput fabrication capability for geometrically and chemically anisotropic micropartcles. Particle size is about 100 um. 


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